The clock drawing test as a screening tool in mild cognitive impairment and very mild dementia

a new brief method of scoring and normative data in the elderly

Monica Ricci*, Martina Pigliautile, Valeria D’Ambrosio, Sara Ercolani, Cinzia Bianchini, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Nicola Vanacore, Patrizia Mecocci

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

many studies sustained that the clock drawing test (CDT) was not able to accurately detect people with CDR = 0.5. Other researchers have promoted the use of scoring approaches with multiple scales that rate quantitative and qualitative features of the production. Nevertheless, these scoring systems are complex and time-consuming. We propose a new brief CDT’ scoring system in order to find a good measure for mild cognitive decline which is at the same time easy to administer. we enrolled 719 subjects: n. 181 with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD); n. 200 with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and n. 338 healthy elderly subjects (C). our CDT-three-cluster scoring system demonstrated a good sensitivity and an excellent specificity to discriminate MCI subjects from normal elderly (76 and 84 %, respectively) and an excellent sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients affected by mild Alzheimer disease (CDR: 1) from normal elderly (91 and 90 %, respectively). We found that CDT’ score = 1.30 discriminate people with MCI, whereas a score = 4.38 discriminate AD patients. The three-cluster-scoring-system demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy, taking into account those error-items more predictive of cognitive decline: omission of numbers or hands, writing numbers or hands in a wrong position and writing numbers or hands in a different code. Our CDT’ scoring system is very short and easy method which can be used also by non-specialist.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)867-873
Number of pages7
JournalNeurological Sciences
Volume37
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016

Keywords

  • mild Alzheimer’s disease
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • clock drawing test
  • scoring system

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