The comprehensive AOCMF classification: skull base and cranial vault fractures - Level 2 and 3 tutorial

Antonio Di Ieva, Laurent Audigé*, Robert M. Kellman, Kevin A. Shumrick, Helmut Ringl, Joachim Prein, Christian Matula

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The AOCMF Classification Group developed a hierarchical three-level craniomaxillofacial classification system with increasing level of complexity and details. The highest level 1 system distinguish four major anatomical units, including the mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). This tutorial presents the level 2 and more detailed level 3 systems for the skull base and cranial vault units. The level 2 system describes fracture location outlining the topographic boundaries of the anatomic regions, considering in particular the endocranial and exocranial skull base surfaces. The endocranial skull base is divided into nine regions; a central skull base adjoining a left and right side are divided into the anterior, middle, and posterior skull base. The exocranial skull base surface and cranial vault are divided in regions defined by the names of the bones involved: frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid, and occipital bones. The level 3 system allows assessing fracture morphology described by the presence of fracture fragmentation, displacement, and bone loss. A documentation of associated intracranial diagnostic features is proposed. This tutorial is organized in a sequence of sections dealing with the description of the classification system with illustrations of the topographical skull base and cranial vault regions along with rules for fracture location and coding, a series of case examples with clinical imaging and a general discussion on the design of this classification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S103-S113
Number of pages11
JournalCraniomaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction
Issue number1 supplement
Publication statusPublished - 25 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • classification system
  • cranial vault
  • fracture classification
  • skull base


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