The constraint-effects-mitigation involvement loyalty model: a integrative review

James Smith*, Stephanie Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This systematic review deliberately included studies with diverse methodologies in order to establish the general applicability of a constraint-effects-mitigation involvement loyalty model, a status which has only been indirectly accorded to it within the literature to date. Studies conducted between 1987 and the present covering 27 papers in several different settings consistently demonstrated that leisure involvement can necessitate negotiation strategies to allow individuals to form loyalty to people, leisure activities and places, whilst still facing a myriad of constraints at any given time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-260
Number of pages17
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • constraint negotiation
  • constraints
  • enduring involvement
  • loyalty


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