Homeostasis implies constant operational defence mechanisms, against both external and internal threats. Infectious agents are prominent among such threats. During infection, the host elicits the release of a vast array of molecules and numerous cell-cell interactions are triggered. These pleiomorphic mediators and cellular effects are of prime importance in the defence of the host, both in the systemic circulation and at sites of tissue injury, for example, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we focus on the interactions between the endothelium, astrocytes, and the molecules they release. Our review addresses these interactions during infectious neurological diseases of various origins, especially cerebral malaria (CM). Two novel elements of the interplay between endothelium and astrocytes, microparticles and the kynurenine pathway, will also be discussed.