The "Destroyers of the earth" in Revelation 11,18 - who are they?

Eliezer González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Revelation 11,18 is a verse that is commonly cited specifically in connection with caring for the earth and its natural resources. This paper will argue that in its appropriate context, the destruction of the earth to which Rev 11,18 refers is not the degradation of the natural environment of the earth. Rather, it refers to the outpouring of the seven plagues, for which ultimate responsibility, although it is God's action, is attributed to the nations under the leadership of the beast. It is therefore exegetically inappropriate to use Rev 11,18 as a de-contextualized proof-text to urge environmental responsibility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-107
Number of pages17
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Revelation
  • two witnesses
  • ecology
  • environment
  • plagues
  • destruction
  • exegesis


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