The double-deficit hypothesis and difficulties in learning to read a regular orthography

Heinz Wimmer*, Heinz Mayringer, Karin Landerl

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    303 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In 2 large longitudinal studies, we selected 3 subgroups of German-speaking children (phonological awareness deficit, naming-speed deficit, double deficit) at the beginning of school and assessed reading and spelling performance about 3 years later. Quite different from findings with English-speaking children, phonological awareness deficits did not affect phonological coding in word recognition but did affect orthographic spelling and foreign-word reading. Naming-speed deficits did affect reading fluency, orthographic spelling, and foreign-word reading. Apparently, in the context of a regular orthography and a synthetic phonics teaching approach, early phases of literacy acquisition (particularly the acquisition of phonological coding) are less affected by early phonological awareness deficits than are later phases that depend on the build up of orthographic memory.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)668-680
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
    Volume92
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2000

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