The double deficit hypothesis in the transparent Finnish orthography: a longitudinal study from kindergarten to Grade 2

Minna Torppa*, Rauno Parrila, Pekka Niemi, Marja Kristiina Lerkkanen, Anna Maija Poikkeus, Jari Erik Nurmi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We examined the double deficit hypothesis (Wolf & Bowers, 1999) and literacy development in a longitudinal dataset of 1,006 Finnish children who were nonreaders at school entry. A single phonological awareness (PA) deficit was a predictor of pseudoword spelling accuracy and reading fluency, and a single rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficit was a predictor of reading fluency. The group with both PA and RAN deficits experienced the most extensive reading and spelling difficulties. However, all groups included both poor and average Grade 2 readers and spellers. Poor letter knowledge and vocabulary, task avoidance, attention difficulties, hyperactivity, and lack of teaching at home were additional risk factors for reading and spelling problems, but their impact varied depending on the presence of PA and RAN deficits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1353-1380
Number of pages28
JournalReading and Writing
Volume26
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • double deficit
  • phonological awareness
  • rapid automatized naming
  • reading development
  • spelling development

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