The effect of reflective activities on reflective thinking ability in an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum

Cherie Tsingos-Lucas, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, Carl R. Schneider, Lorraine Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability.

Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection.

Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities.

Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number65
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • pharmacy curriculum
  • reflective practice
  • reflective thinking
  • experimental crossover design
  • pharmacy teaching


Dive into the research topics of 'The effect of reflective activities on reflective thinking ability in an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this