The Effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental health: quasi-experimental evidence from Indonesia

Gumilang Sahadewo, Yudistira Permana*, Yuanyuan Gu, Elizabeth-Ann Schroeder

*Corresponding author for this work

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Introduction/Main Objectives: This research aims to explore and analyze the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health status as measured by DASS-21. Background Problems: The prolonged impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy may have adversely affected mental health. A decrease in income and consumption and the uncertainties surrounding job security and business performance have been some of the main factors contributing to mental health issues.
Novelty: This paper aims to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic—as a natural experiment—on mental health measured by DASS-21 and how the effect of the pandemic varied across different socioeconomic subgroups.
Research Methods: We conducted an online survey across Indonesia to collect self-reported mental health status and socioeconomic characteristics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to measure its impacts on mental health.
Finding/Results: Our results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an adverse impact on mental health, particularly in terms of anxiety and stress. The effect has been higher among individuals with lower self-efficacy, lower expenditure, and lower education levels.
Conclusion: The health and economic crisis driven by the COVID-19 pandemic affected individuals' mental health, suggesting the need for appropriate policy responses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93–108
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Indonesian Economy and Business
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024 THE AUTHOR (S). Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • COVID-19 impact
  • mental health
  • quasi-experiment


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