The Environmental Kuznets Curve across Australian states and territories

Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, John Inekwe, Kris Ivanovski, Russell Smyth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


We test the Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) hypothesis for a panel of eight Australian states and territories using non-parametric panel estimation over the period 1990 to 2017. A feature of our non-parametric estimation method is that it allows carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to evolve over time in the form of an unknown functional form with confidence bands constructed using a wild bootstrapping method. This framework has the advantage that we can plot the time-varying relationship between Gross State Product (GSP) and CO2 emissions. The non-parametric local linear estimates for GSP are consistent with a conventional inverted U-shaped EKC, which peaks in 2010 and declines thereafter. The peak coincides with a significant policy shift in Australia's commitment to reducing CO2 emissions, whereby, in 2010, the Australian Government, and subsequently the states and territories, pledged to reduce CO2 emissions to 5% below 2000 levels by 2020 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (the Cancun Agreement).
Original languageEnglish
Article number104869
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy Economics
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


  • Environmental Kuznets Curve
  • CO2 emissions
  • Australia


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