Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmental impacts of pesticide residues. This review describes examples of enzymes possessing the major activities employed in the bioremediation of pesticide residues, and some of the strategies by which they are employed. In addition, several examples of specific achievements in enzyme engineering are considered, highlighting the growing trend in tailoring enzymatic activity to a specific biotechnologically relevant function.
- bacterial enzymes