In cardiovascular and cerebrovascular biology, control of thrombosis and the coagulation cascade in ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and other coagulopathies is the focus of significant research around the world. Ischemic stroke remains one of the largest causes of death and disability in developed countries. Preventing thrombosis and protecting vessel patency is the primary goal. However, utilization of the body’s natural coagulation cascades as an approach for targeted destruction of abnormal, disease-associated vessels and tissues has been increasing over the last 30 years. This vascular targeting approach, often termed “vascular infarction”, describes the deliberate, targeted delivery of a thrombogenic effector to diseased blood vessels with the aim to induce localized activation of the coagulation cascade and stable thrombus formation, leading to vessel occlusion and ablation. As systemic delivery of pro-thrombotic agents may cause consternation amongst traditional stroke researchers, proponents of the approach must suitably establish both efficacy and safety to take this field forward. In this review, we describe the evolution of this field and, with a focus on thrombogenic effectors, summarize the current literature with respect to emerging trends in “coaguligand” development, in targeted tumor vessel destruction, and in expansion of the approach to the treatment of brain vascular malformations
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- brain arteriovenous malformations
- targeted therapy
- vascular malformations
- vascular targeting