The factor structure of cybersickness

Susan Bruck, Paul A. Watters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


Cybersickness embraces a range of clinical symptoms reported in response to simulated motion in a computer generated, virtual reality environment. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) has been the standard tool for measuring observed responses; however, many of the observed SSQ variables are highly correlated, so it is not clear which ones are appropriate to use as a basis for building an explanatory model. In this study, responses to the SSQ were analyzed using principal components analysis, and four significant factors - general cybersickness, vision, arousal and fatigue - were identified. An initial interpretation of these factors is provided in the context of a broader cybersickness model, with a view to constructing a new questionnaire with fewer, more focused questions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-158
Number of pages6
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Cybersickness
  • Factor analysis
  • Respiration
  • Simulator Sickness Questionnaire
  • Virtual reality


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