The global spectrum of plant form and function

Sandra Díaz*, Jens Kattge, Johannes H.C. Cornelissen, Ian J. Wright, Sandra Lavorel, Stéphane Dray, Björn Reu, Michael Kleyer, Christian Wirth, I. Colin Prentice, Eric Garnier, Gerhard Bönisch, Mark Westoby, Hendrik Poorter, Peter B. Reich, Angela T. Moles, John Dickie, Andrew N. Gillison, Amy E. Zanne, Jérôme ChaveS. Joseph Wright, Serge N. Sheremet Ev, Hervé Jactel, Christopher Baraloto, Bruno Cerabolini, Simon Pierce, Bill Shipley, Donald Kirkup, Fernando Casanoves, Julia S. Joswig, Angela Günther, Valeria Falczuk, Nadja Rüger, Miguel D. Mahecha, Lucas D. Gorné

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    1402 Citations (Scopus)


    Earth is home to a remarkable diversity of plant forms and life histories, yet comparatively few essential trait combinations have proved evolutionarily viable in today € s terrestrial biosphere. By analysing worldwide variation in six major traits critical to growth, survival and reproduction within the largest sample of vascular plant species ever compiled, we found that occupancy of six-dimensional trait space is strongly concentrated, indicating coordination and trade-offs. Three-quarters of trait variation is captured in a two-dimensional global spectrum of plant form and function. One major dimension within this plane reflects the size of whole plants and their parts; the other represents the leaf economics spectrum, which balances leaf construction costs against growth potential. The global plant trait spectrum provides a backdrop for elucidating constraints on evolution, for functionally qualifying species and ecosystems, and for improving models that predict future vegetation based on continuous variation in plant form and function.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)167-171
    Number of pages17
    Issue number7585
    Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2016


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