The influence of dose on the performance of dry powder inhalation systems

Paul M. Young, Stephen Edge, Daniela Traini, Matthew D. Jones, Robert Price, Dina El-Sabawi, Claire Urry, Charlotte Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Citations (Scopus)


The relationship between drug/lactose ratio and aerosolisation performance of conventional carrier based formulations was investigated using the twin stage impinger. A dose range of ∼10–450 μg of drug in a 50 mg lactose carrier formulation was studied. Statistical differences in both the fine particle dose and fine particle fraction were observed across the dosage range (ANOVA, p < 0.05). In general, no statistically significant difference (Fishers Pairwise, p < 0.05) in fine particle dose was observed between drug levels of approximately 10 μg and 135 μg, whereas a linear decrease in fine particle fraction was observed across the same drug level range (R2 = 0.977). Increasing the dose from ∼135 μg to 450 μg resulted in a statistically significant increase in both fine particle dose and fraction (ANOVA p < 0.05). Such observations may be attributed to the occupation of ‘active’ carrier sites by drug particles at low drug concentration, since the quantity of drug particles liberated from the carrier during aerosolisation remains constant at the lower dosing regimes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-33
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Dry powder inhaler
  • Low dose
  • Active sites
  • Pulmonary delivery


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