The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine

Jan H. Swiegers, Robyn L. Kievit, Tracey Siebert, Kate A. Lattey, Belinda R. Bramley, I. Leigh Francis, Ellena S. King, Isak S. Pretorius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains on the concentration of aroma-enhancing volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites in Sauvignon Blanc wine. Seven commercial wine yeast strains were selected based on their putative ability to modulate the concentrations of the fruity volatile thiols, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercapto-hexylacetate (3MHA). Each of these yeasts was used to produce Sauvignon Blanc wines under controlled conditions, in triplicate, in 20-L quantities. The levels of 4MMP, 3MH and 3MHA in these wines were quantified using the p-hydroxymercuribenzoate method. In addition, a total of 24 volatile yeast-derived fermentation aroma compounds were also quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Formal sensory analysis was conducted by 12 trained assessors and, additionally, a panel of 24 experienced wine industry professionals assessed the wines and ranked them in order of preference. The results indicated that the yeast strains varied significantly in terms of their capabilities to (i) produce volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites; and (ii) to modulate the varietal characters of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Yeast strains that produced the highest levels of volatile thiols were responsible for wines with the highest perceived intensity of fruitiness, and these wines were preferred by the tasting panels. While the 'green' characters in Sauvignon Blanc wines can be manipulated through vineyard management, the 'tropical fruity' characters appear to be largely dependent on the wine yeast strain used during fermentation. Therefore, the choice of yeast strain offers great potential to modulate wine aroma profiles to definable styles and predetermined consumer market specifications.

LanguageEnglish
Pages204-211
Number of pages8
JournalFood Microbiology
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Wine
wines
Yeasts
odors
yeasts
thiols
wine yeasts
fermentation
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Fermentation
Hexanols
metabolites
wine industry
vineyards
odor compounds
Solid Phase Microextraction
sensory evaluation
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
markets
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Cite this

Swiegers, J. H., Kievit, R. L., Siebert, T., Lattey, K. A., Bramley, B. R., Francis, I. L., ... Pretorius, I. S. (2009). The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Food Microbiology, 26(2), 204-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.004
Swiegers, Jan H. ; Kievit, Robyn L. ; Siebert, Tracey ; Lattey, Kate A. ; Bramley, Belinda R. ; Francis, I. Leigh ; King, Ellena S. ; Pretorius, Isak S. / The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine. In: Food Microbiology. 2009 ; Vol. 26, No. 2. pp. 204-211.
@article{2cfd17b948704b308e3a633e090402a2,
title = "The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine",
abstract = "The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains on the concentration of aroma-enhancing volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites in Sauvignon Blanc wine. Seven commercial wine yeast strains were selected based on their putative ability to modulate the concentrations of the fruity volatile thiols, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercapto-hexylacetate (3MHA). Each of these yeasts was used to produce Sauvignon Blanc wines under controlled conditions, in triplicate, in 20-L quantities. The levels of 4MMP, 3MH and 3MHA in these wines were quantified using the p-hydroxymercuribenzoate method. In addition, a total of 24 volatile yeast-derived fermentation aroma compounds were also quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Formal sensory analysis was conducted by 12 trained assessors and, additionally, a panel of 24 experienced wine industry professionals assessed the wines and ranked them in order of preference. The results indicated that the yeast strains varied significantly in terms of their capabilities to (i) produce volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites; and (ii) to modulate the varietal characters of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Yeast strains that produced the highest levels of volatile thiols were responsible for wines with the highest perceived intensity of fruitiness, and these wines were preferred by the tasting panels. While the 'green' characters in Sauvignon Blanc wines can be manipulated through vineyard management, the 'tropical fruity' characters appear to be largely dependent on the wine yeast strain used during fermentation. Therefore, the choice of yeast strain offers great potential to modulate wine aroma profiles to definable styles and predetermined consumer market specifications.",
author = "Swiegers, {Jan H.} and Kievit, {Robyn L.} and Tracey Siebert and Lattey, {Kate A.} and Bramley, {Belinda R.} and Francis, {I. Leigh} and King, {Ellena S.} and Pretorius, {Isak S.}",
year = "2009",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.004",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "204--211",
journal = "Food Microbiology",
issn = "0740-0020",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

Swiegers, JH, Kievit, RL, Siebert, T, Lattey, KA, Bramley, BR, Francis, IL, King, ES & Pretorius, IS 2009, 'The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine', Food Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 204-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.004

The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine. / Swiegers, Jan H.; Kievit, Robyn L.; Siebert, Tracey; Lattey, Kate A.; Bramley, Belinda R.; Francis, I. Leigh; King, Ellena S.; Pretorius, Isak S.

In: Food Microbiology, Vol. 26, No. 2, 04.2009, p. 204-211.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine

AU - Swiegers, Jan H.

AU - Kievit, Robyn L.

AU - Siebert, Tracey

AU - Lattey, Kate A.

AU - Bramley, Belinda R.

AU - Francis, I. Leigh

AU - King, Ellena S.

AU - Pretorius, Isak S.

PY - 2009/4

Y1 - 2009/4

N2 - The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains on the concentration of aroma-enhancing volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites in Sauvignon Blanc wine. Seven commercial wine yeast strains were selected based on their putative ability to modulate the concentrations of the fruity volatile thiols, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercapto-hexylacetate (3MHA). Each of these yeasts was used to produce Sauvignon Blanc wines under controlled conditions, in triplicate, in 20-L quantities. The levels of 4MMP, 3MH and 3MHA in these wines were quantified using the p-hydroxymercuribenzoate method. In addition, a total of 24 volatile yeast-derived fermentation aroma compounds were also quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Formal sensory analysis was conducted by 12 trained assessors and, additionally, a panel of 24 experienced wine industry professionals assessed the wines and ranked them in order of preference. The results indicated that the yeast strains varied significantly in terms of their capabilities to (i) produce volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites; and (ii) to modulate the varietal characters of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Yeast strains that produced the highest levels of volatile thiols were responsible for wines with the highest perceived intensity of fruitiness, and these wines were preferred by the tasting panels. While the 'green' characters in Sauvignon Blanc wines can be manipulated through vineyard management, the 'tropical fruity' characters appear to be largely dependent on the wine yeast strain used during fermentation. Therefore, the choice of yeast strain offers great potential to modulate wine aroma profiles to definable styles and predetermined consumer market specifications.

AB - The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains on the concentration of aroma-enhancing volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites in Sauvignon Blanc wine. Seven commercial wine yeast strains were selected based on their putative ability to modulate the concentrations of the fruity volatile thiols, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercapto-hexylacetate (3MHA). Each of these yeasts was used to produce Sauvignon Blanc wines under controlled conditions, in triplicate, in 20-L quantities. The levels of 4MMP, 3MH and 3MHA in these wines were quantified using the p-hydroxymercuribenzoate method. In addition, a total of 24 volatile yeast-derived fermentation aroma compounds were also quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Formal sensory analysis was conducted by 12 trained assessors and, additionally, a panel of 24 experienced wine industry professionals assessed the wines and ranked them in order of preference. The results indicated that the yeast strains varied significantly in terms of their capabilities to (i) produce volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites; and (ii) to modulate the varietal characters of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Yeast strains that produced the highest levels of volatile thiols were responsible for wines with the highest perceived intensity of fruitiness, and these wines were preferred by the tasting panels. While the 'green' characters in Sauvignon Blanc wines can be manipulated through vineyard management, the 'tropical fruity' characters appear to be largely dependent on the wine yeast strain used during fermentation. Therefore, the choice of yeast strain offers great potential to modulate wine aroma profiles to definable styles and predetermined consumer market specifications.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58549084346&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.004

DO - 10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.004

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 204

EP - 211

JO - Food Microbiology

T2 - Food Microbiology

JF - Food Microbiology

SN - 0740-0020

IS - 2

ER -

Swiegers JH, Kievit RL, Siebert T, Lattey KA, Bramley BR, Francis IL et al. The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Food Microbiology. 2009 Apr;26(2):204-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.004