The localization of the relaxed form of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 in human gingival tissues

Pia Lindberg, Mark S. Baker, Bertil Kinnby*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The plasminogen activating system is important in extracellular proteolysis. Plasmin degrades tissues and activates proteases. Plasminogen activators (tissue type; t-PA and urokinase type; u-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1, PAI-2) are found in high concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Previous findings indicate the significance of PAI-2 in gingival inflammation. When PAI-2 inhibits a plasminogen activator its conformation relaxes and neoepitopes can be detected with a monoclonal antibody (#2H5). Our aim was to study if and where in the gingival region PAI-2 has acted as an inhibitor. Methodological studies were performed on GCF with western blotting. Frozen sections of human gingiva were studied immunohistochemically. The methodological studies showed that our antibody #2H5 selectively detects relaxed low molecular weight non-glycosylated PAI-2. Total PAI-2 and relaxed PAI-2 were found in all gingival epithelia with a honeycomb-like staining. Relaxed PAI-2 showed the most pronounced staining in the cell layers near the surface of the epithelium and no staining in the suprabasal layers, while total PAI-2 was found throughout the epithelium, often more pronounced suprabasally. The results showed that PAI-2 indeed has acted as an inhibitor of a protease in gingival tissues, primarily in the epithelia. The results also suggest primarily an intracellular localization and thus the interaction of PAI-2 with a protein other than t-PA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447-452
Number of pages6
JournalHistochemistry and Cell Biology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Gingival tissue
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitors
  • Plasminogen activators
  • Proteolysis
  • Relaxed PAI-2


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