The plasminogen activating system is important in extracellular proteolysis. Plasmin degrades tissues and activates proteases. Plasminogen activators (tissue type; t-PA and urokinase type; u-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1, PAI-2) are found in high concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Previous findings indicate the significance of PAI-2 in gingival inflammation. When PAI-2 inhibits a plasminogen activator its conformation relaxes and neoepitopes can be detected with a monoclonal antibody (#2H5). Our aim was to study if and where in the gingival region PAI-2 has acted as an inhibitor. Methodological studies were performed on GCF with western blotting. Frozen sections of human gingiva were studied immunohistochemically. The methodological studies showed that our antibody #2H5 selectively detects relaxed low molecular weight non-glycosylated PAI-2. Total PAI-2 and relaxed PAI-2 were found in all gingival epithelia with a honeycomb-like staining. Relaxed PAI-2 showed the most pronounced staining in the cell layers near the surface of the epithelium and no staining in the suprabasal layers, while total PAI-2 was found throughout the epithelium, often more pronounced suprabasally. The results showed that PAI-2 indeed has acted as an inhibitor of a protease in gingival tissues, primarily in the epithelia. The results also suggest primarily an intracellular localization and thus the interaction of PAI-2 with a protein other than t-PA.
- Gingival tissue
- Plasminogen activator inhibitors
- Plasminogen activators
- Relaxed PAI-2