The loneliness of the long-distance toad

invasion history and social attraction in cane toads (Rhinella marina)

Jodie Gruber*, Martin J. Whiting, Gregory Brown, Richard Shine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


Individuals at the leading edge of a biological invasion constantly encounter novel environments. These pioneers may benefit from increased social attraction, because low population densities reduce competition and risks of pathogen transfer, and increase benefits of information transfer. In standardized trials, cane toads (Rhinella marina) from invasion-front populations approached conspecifics more often, and spent more time close to them, than did conspecifics from high-density, long-colonized populations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20170445
Pages (from-to)1-4
Number of pages4
JournalBiology Letters
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


  • sociality
  • Bufo marinus
  • evolution
  • aggregation

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