This article is the second part of a review on the nanoscale in pulmonary drug delivery. Specifically it summarises and analyses the potential of the different inhalation delivery routes: nebulisers, dry powder inhalers, pressurised metered-dose inhalers, for the delivery of nanoparticles or nanodroplets. Few products and experimental studies have managed to fully exploit the nanoscale in inhalation delivery, although some may unknowingly benefit from it. Nebulisers are the most advanced in using the nanoscale, pressurised metered-dose inhalers require further developments to realise its full potential, and dry powder inhalers are specifically in need of a dry solid nanoparticle generation technique to make it a reality.
- Drug delivery
- Dry powder inhaler
- Pressurized metered-dose inhaler
- Pulmonary delivery