Background: A major pathological hallmark of AD is the deposition of insoluble extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. There are compelling data suggesting that Aβ aggregation is catalysed by reaction with the metals zinc and copper. Methodology/Principal Findings: We now report that the major human-expressed metallothionein (MT) subtype, MT-2A, is capable of preventing the in vitro copper-mediated aggregation of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. This action of MT-2A appears to involve a metal-swap between Zn7MT-2A and Cu(II)-Aβ, since neither Cu10MT-2A or carboxymethylated MT-2A blocked Cu(II)-Aβ aggregation. Furthermore, Zn7MT-2A blocked Cu(II)-Aβ induced changes in ionic homeostasis and subsequent neurotoxicity of cultured cortical neurons. Conclusions/Significance: These results indicate that MTs of the type represented by MT-2A are capable of protecting against Aβ aggregation and toxicity. Given the recent interest in metal-chelation therapies for AD that remove metal from Aβ leaving a metal-free Aβ that can readily bind metals again, we believe that MT-2A might represent a different therapeutic approach as the metal exchange between MT and Aβ leaves the Aβ in a Zn-bound, relatively inert form.