The necrotrophic effector protein SnTox3 re-programs metabolism and elicits a strong defence response in susceptible wheat leaves

Britta Winterberg, Lauren A. Du Fall, Xiaomin Song, Dana Pascovici, Natasha Care, Mark Molloy, Stephen Ohms, Peter S. Solomon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: The fungus Stagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen of wheat. It causes disease by secreting proteinaceous effectors which interact with proteins encoded by dominant susceptibility genes in the host. The outcome of these interactions results in necrosis, allowing the fungus to thrive on dead plant material. The mechanisms of these effectors though are poorly understood. In this study, we undertake a comprehensive transcriptomics, proteomic and metabolomic approach to understand how a susceptible wheat cultivar responds to exposure to the Stagonospora nodorum effector protein SnTox3. Results: Microarray and proteomic studies revealed that SnTox3 strongly induced responses consistent with those previously associated with classical host defence pathways including the expression of pathogenicity-related proteins and the induction of cell death. Collapse of the photosynthetic machinery was also apparent at the transcriptional and translational level. SnTox3-infiltrated wheat leaves also showed a strong induction of enzymes involved in primary metabolism consistent with increases in hexoses, amino acids and organic acids as determined by primary metabolite profiling. Methionine and homocysteine metabolism was strongly induced upon exposure to SnTox3. Pathogenicity in the presence of homocysteine was inhibited confirming that the compound has a role in plant defence. Consistent with the strong defence responses observed, secondary metabolite profiling revealed the induction of several compounds associated with plant defence, including the phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid, and the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Serotonin did not accumulate subsequent to SnTox3 infiltration. Conclusions: These data support the theory that the SnTox3 effector protein elicits a host cell death response to facilitate the pathogen's necrotrophic infection cycle. Our data also demonstrate that the mechanism of SnTox3 appears distinct from the previously characterised Stagonospora nodorum effector SnToxA. Collectively, this comprehensive analysis has advanced our understanding of necrotrophic effector biology and highlighted the complexity of effector-triggered susceptibility.

LanguageEnglish
Article number215
Pages1-15
Number of pages15
JournalBMC Plant Biology
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2014

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Leptosphaeria nodorum
Triticum
wheat
metabolism
homocysteine
Homocysteine
Proteomics
proteomics
Virulence
cell death
leaves
Proteins
Fungi
Cell Death
pathogenicity
proteins
Dominant Genes
Chlorogenic Acid
Enzyme Induction
fungi

Bibliographical note

Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Cite this

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title = "The necrotrophic effector protein SnTox3 re-programs metabolism and elicits a strong defence response in susceptible wheat leaves",
abstract = "Background: The fungus Stagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen of wheat. It causes disease by secreting proteinaceous effectors which interact with proteins encoded by dominant susceptibility genes in the host. The outcome of these interactions results in necrosis, allowing the fungus to thrive on dead plant material. The mechanisms of these effectors though are poorly understood. In this study, we undertake a comprehensive transcriptomics, proteomic and metabolomic approach to understand how a susceptible wheat cultivar responds to exposure to the Stagonospora nodorum effector protein SnTox3. Results: Microarray and proteomic studies revealed that SnTox3 strongly induced responses consistent with those previously associated with classical host defence pathways including the expression of pathogenicity-related proteins and the induction of cell death. Collapse of the photosynthetic machinery was also apparent at the transcriptional and translational level. SnTox3-infiltrated wheat leaves also showed a strong induction of enzymes involved in primary metabolism consistent with increases in hexoses, amino acids and organic acids as determined by primary metabolite profiling. Methionine and homocysteine metabolism was strongly induced upon exposure to SnTox3. Pathogenicity in the presence of homocysteine was inhibited confirming that the compound has a role in plant defence. Consistent with the strong defence responses observed, secondary metabolite profiling revealed the induction of several compounds associated with plant defence, including the phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid, and the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Serotonin did not accumulate subsequent to SnTox3 infiltration. Conclusions: These data support the theory that the SnTox3 effector protein elicits a host cell death response to facilitate the pathogen's necrotrophic infection cycle. Our data also demonstrate that the mechanism of SnTox3 appears distinct from the previously characterised Stagonospora nodorum effector SnToxA. Collectively, this comprehensive analysis has advanced our understanding of necrotrophic effector biology and highlighted the complexity of effector-triggered susceptibility.",
author = "Britta Winterberg and {Du Fall}, {Lauren A.} and Xiaomin Song and Dana Pascovici and Natasha Care and Mark Molloy and Stephen Ohms and Solomon, {Peter S.}",
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The necrotrophic effector protein SnTox3 re-programs metabolism and elicits a strong defence response in susceptible wheat leaves. / Winterberg, Britta; Du Fall, Lauren A.; Song, Xiaomin; Pascovici, Dana; Care, Natasha; Molloy, Mark; Ohms, Stephen; Solomon, Peter S.

In: BMC Plant Biology, Vol. 14, 215, 15.08.2014, p. 1-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The necrotrophic effector protein SnTox3 re-programs metabolism and elicits a strong defence response in susceptible wheat leaves

AU - Winterberg, Britta

AU - Du Fall, Lauren A.

AU - Song, Xiaomin

AU - Pascovici, Dana

AU - Care, Natasha

AU - Molloy, Mark

AU - Ohms, Stephen

AU - Solomon, Peter S.

N1 - Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

PY - 2014/8/15

Y1 - 2014/8/15

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