Purpose of review: Inherited myopathies, and in particular mitochondrial myopathies, are heterogeneous disorders, and ocular manifestations may be the presenting feature or offer important diagnostic clues. The ophthalmologist may be key to diagnosis, facilitating recognition of associated potentially life-threatening organ manifestations and an integral part of multidisciplinary care. This review, focusing especially on mitochondrial myopathies, provides updates on clinical features, diagnosis and recent therapeutic developments.Recent findings: Ptosis and/or ophthalmoplegia is present in over half of patients with mitochondrial disease, and associated clinical features imply specific genetic associations. Advances in next-generation sequencing have led to rapid evolution in the field, improving diagnosis rates, facilitating identification of novel genes, mutations and phenotypes, and providing important insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic possibilities. Improved understanding of molecular mechanisms in inherited myopathies is enabling the development of experimental molecular therapies with clinical potential. Summary: Genetic advances are driving progress in the field of inherited myopathies, influencing diagnosis, understanding of disease and development of therapies. Recognition of key features can impact diagnosis and management of these important conditions.
- inherited myopathy
- mitochondrial disease
- next-generation sequencing
- ocular myopathy
- progressive external ophthalmoplegia