The idea that human behaviour is often inﬂuenced by competing processes that support unique responses is pervasive in psychological science. Its early origins can be found in Sigmund Freud’s belief that personality and behaviour derive from the constant interaction of conﬂicting conscious and unconscious psychological inﬂuences (see Frankish & Evans, 2009, for a comprehensive review of these ideas stretching all the way back to Plato). In modern psychology, such dual process theories have been developed to explain a whole range of psychological phenomena, including the operation of human memory (Jacoby, Toth, & Yonelinas, 1993), perceptual category learning (Ashby & Maddox, 2005), person perception (Chaiken & Trope, 1999), judgment and decision making (Epstein, 1994; Kahneman, 2011; Sloman, 1996), and reasoning (Evans & Over, 1996; Stanovich, 1999). In all cases, the presence of a conﬂict between competing responses is seen as diagnostic of dual processes at work.
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