The parallel processing model of belief bias: review and extensions

Dries Trippas*, Simon J. Handley

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

    20 Citations (Scopus)


    The idea that human behaviour is often influenced by competing processes that support unique responses is pervasive in psychological science. Its early origins can be found in Sigmund Freud’s belief that personality and behaviour derive from the constant interaction of conflicting conscious and unconscious psychological influences (see Frankish & Evans, 2009, for a comprehensive review of these ideas stretching all the way back to Plato). In modern psychology, such dual process theories have been developed to explain a whole range of psychological phenomena, including the operation of human memory (Jacoby, Toth, & Yonelinas, 1993), perceptual category learning (Ashby & Maddox, 2005), person perception (Chaiken & Trope, 1999), judgment and decision making (Epstein, 1994; Kahneman, 2011; Sloman, 1996), and reasoning (Evans & Over, 1996; Stanovich, 1999). In all cases, the presence of a conflict between competing responses is seen as diagnostic of dual processes at work.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationDual process theory 2.0
    EditorsWim De Neys
    Place of PublicationAbingdon, Oxon
    PublisherRoutledge, Taylor and Francis Group
    Number of pages19
    ISBN (Electronic)9781315204550
    ISBN (Print)9781138700628, 9781138700642
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Publication series

    NameCurrent issues in thinking and reasoning


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