The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying freezing of gait in Parkinson's Disease

J. M. Shine, S. L. Naismith, S. J G Lewis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


Freezing of gait is a paroxysmal phenomenon most commonly found in patients with advanced Parkinson's Disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this behaviour remain uncertain despite a well-characterised phenotype. Freezing behaviour extends beyond gait to affecting speech and upper limb function, suggesting that there is likely to be a universal mechanism underlying the phenomenon. This paper identifies the essential features required for a comprehensive model of freezing and evaluates a number of hypotheses that seek to explain the phenomenon. It appears likely that the pathophysiology of freezing involves context-dependant dysfunction across multiple levels of the neurological system, including cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. Crown

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1154-1157
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Freezing of gait
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Pathophysiological mechanism


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