The PENGASP system: architecture, language and authoring tool

Stephen C. Guy, Rolf Schwitter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we describe the architecture, the language and the authoring tool of the PENGASP system. This system supports the writing of non-monotonic specifications in controlled natural language with the help of a web-based predictive text editor. This predictive editor communicates asynchronously with a controlled natural language processor that translates the specification text via discourse representation structures into executable Answer Set Programs (ASP). The controlled natural language processor additionally generates lookahead categories and anaphoric expressions for the author of a specification text, and it provides a paraphrase of the specification that clarifies the interpretation of the text by the machine. The predictive editor is a central component of the PENGASP system; it guides the writing process and displays multiple sets of lookahead categories simultaneously for different possible sentence completions as well as anaphoric expressions, and supports the addition of new content words to the lexicon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-92
Number of pages26
JournalLanguage Resources and Evaluation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Answer set programming
  • Controlled natural language processing
  • Predictive editor
  • Specifications
  • Web-based authoring tools


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