The Presence of a Symbol

Andy Clark*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The image of the presence of symbols in an inner code pervades recent debates in cognitive science. Classicists worship in the presence. Connectionists revel in the absence. However, the very ideas of code and symbol are ill understood. A major distorting factor in the debates concerns the role of processing in determining the presence or absence of a structured inner code. Drawing on work by David Kirsh and David Chalmers, the present paper attempts to re-define such notions to begin to reflect the inextricability of code and process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-205
Number of pages13
JournalConnection Science
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • code
  • Connectionism
  • explicit representation symbol

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