The prevalence of extreme middle eastern ideologies around the world

Wagdy Loza*, Youssef Abd-El-Fatah, Johan Prinsloo, Anni Hesselink-Louw, Katie Seidler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS, thus suggesting that the BDS could be used as an objective tool to measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies. Results also supported the hypothesis of prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies around different parts of the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)522-538
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • community violence
  • hate crimes
  • spirituality and violence


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