Purpose of Review: We assess the literature on the pharmacokinetics, indications, important considerations, and effectiveness of long-term, low-dose macrolide antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Recent Findings: The key to effective implementation of macrolide therapy in CRS is appropriate patient selection. Macrolides have demonstrated the most benefit in Th1-mediated non-eosinophilic CRS when used for durations of at least 3 months. Summary: Macrolide antibiotics have demonstrated great benefit when used for their anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory properties, which include the blockage of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). They have been used in CRS patients not responding to traditional corticosteroid-based treatment regimens, but appear to be most effective specifically in Th1-mediated non-eosinophilic CRS in long durations and low doses. Further research is needed to better identify characteristics known to correlate with macrolide response so early directed therapy can be implemented.
- chronic rhinosinusitis
- medical management