The role of S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation of protein disulphide isomerase in protein misfolding and neurodegeneration

M. Halloran, S. Parakh, J. D. Atkin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases involve the progressive loss of neurons, and a pathological hallmark is the presence of abnormal inclusions containing misfolded proteins. Although the precise molecular mechanisms triggering neurodegeneration remain unclear, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress, and protein misfolding are important features in pathogenesis. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is the prototype of a family of molecular chaperones and foldases upregulated during ER stress that are increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. PDI catalyzes the rearrangement and formation of disulphide bonds, thus facilitating protein folding, and in neurodegeneration may act to ameliorate the burden of protein misfolding. However, an aberrant posttranslational modification of PDI, S-nitrosylation, inhibits its protective function in these conditions. S-nitrosylation is a redox-mediated modification that regulates protein function by covalent addition of nitric oxide- (NO-) containing groups to cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the evidence for abnormal S-nitrosylation of PDI (SNO-PDI) in neurodegeneration and how this may be linked to another aberrant modification of PDI, S-glutathionylation. Understanding the role of aberrant S-nitrosylation/S-glutathionylation of PDI in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases may provide insights into novel therapeutic interventions in the future.

LanguageEnglish
Article number797914
Pages1-15
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Cell Biology
Volume2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Protein Disulfide-Isomerases
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Molecular Chaperones
Protein Folding
Post Translational Protein Processing
Heat-Shock Proteins
Disulfides
Oxidation-Reduction
Cysteine
Nitric Oxide
Oxidative Stress
Neurons

Cite this

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title = "The role of S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation of protein disulphide isomerase in protein misfolding and neurodegeneration",
abstract = "Neurodegenerative diseases involve the progressive loss of neurons, and a pathological hallmark is the presence of abnormal inclusions containing misfolded proteins. Although the precise molecular mechanisms triggering neurodegeneration remain unclear, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress, and protein misfolding are important features in pathogenesis. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is the prototype of a family of molecular chaperones and foldases upregulated during ER stress that are increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. PDI catalyzes the rearrangement and formation of disulphide bonds, thus facilitating protein folding, and in neurodegeneration may act to ameliorate the burden of protein misfolding. However, an aberrant posttranslational modification of PDI, S-nitrosylation, inhibits its protective function in these conditions. S-nitrosylation is a redox-mediated modification that regulates protein function by covalent addition of nitric oxide- (NO-) containing groups to cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the evidence for abnormal S-nitrosylation of PDI (SNO-PDI) in neurodegeneration and how this may be linked to another aberrant modification of PDI, S-glutathionylation. Understanding the role of aberrant S-nitrosylation/S-glutathionylation of PDI in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases may provide insights into novel therapeutic interventions in the future.",
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The role of S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation of protein disulphide isomerase in protein misfolding and neurodegeneration. / Halloran, M.; Parakh, S.; Atkin, J. D.

In: International Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 2013, 797914, 2013, p. 1-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AB - Neurodegenerative diseases involve the progressive loss of neurons, and a pathological hallmark is the presence of abnormal inclusions containing misfolded proteins. Although the precise molecular mechanisms triggering neurodegeneration remain unclear, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress, and protein misfolding are important features in pathogenesis. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is the prototype of a family of molecular chaperones and foldases upregulated during ER stress that are increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. PDI catalyzes the rearrangement and formation of disulphide bonds, thus facilitating protein folding, and in neurodegeneration may act to ameliorate the burden of protein misfolding. However, an aberrant posttranslational modification of PDI, S-nitrosylation, inhibits its protective function in these conditions. S-nitrosylation is a redox-mediated modification that regulates protein function by covalent addition of nitric oxide- (NO-) containing groups to cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the evidence for abnormal S-nitrosylation of PDI (SNO-PDI) in neurodegeneration and how this may be linked to another aberrant modification of PDI, S-glutathionylation. Understanding the role of aberrant S-nitrosylation/S-glutathionylation of PDI in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases may provide insights into novel therapeutic interventions in the future.

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