Spot patterns, whereby the activator field becomes spatially localized near certain dynamically-evolving discrete spatial locations in a bounded multi-dimensional domain, is a common occurrence for two-component reaction–diffusion (RD) systems in the singular limit of a large diffusivity ratio. In previous studies of 2-D localized spot patterns for various specific well-known RD systems, the domain boundary was assumed to be impermeable to both the activator and inhibitor, and the reaction-kinetics were assumed to be spatially uniform. As an extension of this previous theory, we use formal asymptotic methods to study the existence, stability, and slow dynamics of localized spot patterns for the singularly perturbed 2-D Brusselator RD model when the domain boundary is only partially impermeable, as modeled by an inhomogeneous Robin boundary condition, or when there is an influx of inhibitor across the domain boundary. In our analysis, we will also allow for the effect of a spatially variable bulk feed term in the reaction kinetics. By applying our extended theory to the special case of one-spot patterns and ring patterns of spots inside the unit disk, we provide a detailed analysis of the effect on spot patterns of these three different sources of heterogeneity. In particular, when there is an influx of inhibitor across the boundary of the unit disk, a ring pattern of spots can become pinned to a ring-radius closer to the domain boundary. Under a Robin condition, a quasi-equilibrium ring pattern of spots is shown to exhibit a novel saddle–node bifurcation behavior in terms of either the inhibitor diffusivity, the Robin constant, or the ambient background concentration. A spatially variable bulk feed term, with a concentrated source of “fuel” inside the domain, is shown to yield a saddle–node bifurcation structure of spot equilibria, which leads to qualitatively new spot-pinning behavior. Results from our asymptotic theory are validated from full numerical simulations of the Brusselator model.
- Localized spike patterns
- Domain heterogeneity
- Permeable boundary
- Hybrid asymptotic-numerical method