Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, Taiwan has been governed as a de facto state under the formal title of the Republic of China (ROC). Following the ROC’s expulsion from the United Nations, and the United States’ decision to recognize the PRC, Taiwan has faced increasing isolation within the international community. The PRC has never renounced its irredentist claims and has intensified its campaign to annex Taiwan. This chapter examines 70 years of evolving ties between Taiwan and China. It provides a broad overview of how Taiwan-China relations have changed over the years from an official ban on engagement, to the acceleration of socio-economic exchange. In particular, this chapter examines the changing dynamics of Taiwan-China relations following Taiwan’s democratic transition, which has led to the emergence of the pro-Taiwan independence movement. Since Taiwan’s democratization, political resolution over the so-called Taiwan issue has become increasingly complicated and difficult to resolve.