Theodore the Stoudite’s theory of the icon has only recently attracted the attention it deserves, so perhaps it is now that we can make a proper assessment of it. The foundations of his iconology are still unclear, however, as he does not reference the acts of the Second Council of Nicaea of 787, which overturned the first period of iconoclasm in the eighth century. Also, the fact that he is not familiar with the iconophile writings of John of Damascus, probably means that his refutations of the iconoclasts are largely a product of his own thoughts and devising. Unlike his contemporary iconophile Nikephoros, who cites and refutes iconoclast sources firsthand, he uses the rhetorical question-and-answer genre to deliver his message. It is on this basis that we pose the question of Theodore’s original contribution to the iconophile cause, while examining some chosen themes he discusses during the course of his polemic.