Thirty-five years of research on turning points: insights gained and gaps to be filled

Daniel Druckman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, I review three decades of research conducted on turning points (TPs) in negotiation. The article begins with a historical overview that describes how the concept was discovered. The sections to follow highlight key ideas and findings. These include how negotiators monitor the process and adjust their moves, the relationship between crises and TPs, and the development and application of a three-part framework. These findings are the basis for developing a theory (or theories) of TPs. Building on the approach taken in my earlier Negotiation Journal special issue article, I use the perspective of levels of analysis (individual, interactive, collective) to provide a route for theory development. The levels idea is used as well to organize the research needed to fill gaps in our understanding. I conclude by suggesting two paths for theory development: separate theories at each of the three levels or an integrated theory based on an interplay among the levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-106
Number of pages16
JournalNegotiation Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • crises
  • human agency
  • monitoring
  • negotiation
  • organizational structure
  • synchronicity
  • turning points


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