Three-dimensional and two-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography, and their prediction of reduced fractional flow reserve

Andy S. C. Yong, Austin C. C. Ng, David Brieger, Harry C. Lowe, Martin K. C. Ng, Leonard Kritharides*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


Aims We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (2D-QCA) measurements differed in their accuracy in predicting reduced fractional flow reserve (FFR), and how this varied with stenosis severity and the FFR cut-off used. Methods and results Three-dimensional and 2D-QCA were compared in their measurements of minimum luminal area (MLA), percentage area stenosis, lesion length, minimum luminal diameter (MLD) and percentage diameter stenosis, and in their prediction of functionally significant FFR. In total, 63 target lesions were interrogated in 63 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Of all measurements of lesion severity obtained by 3D-QCA, MLA best correlated with FFR (R 0.63, P< 0.001), and was the most accurate predictor of FFR <0.75 (C statistic 0.86, P< 0.001). Of 2D-QCA measurements, MLD correlated best with FFR (R 0.58, P< 0.001), and best predicted FFR <0.75 (C statistic 0.80, P<0.001). Overall, 3D-QCA showed a non-significant trend towards more accurate prediction of FFR than 2D-QCA, especially in intermediate lesions. The relationship between FFR and apparent stenosis severity was found to be curvilinear. Both 3D- and 2D-QCA were less accurate in intermediate lesions, and in predicting FFR ≤0.80 than in predicting FFR <0.75. Conclusions The accuracy of QCA in predicting functionally significant FFR is limited and is dependent on FFR cut-off used and lesion severity. Where FFR is not available or contraindicated, 3D-QCA may assist in the evaluation of coronary lesions of intermediate severity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-353
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Heart Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Fractional flow reserve
  • Quantitative coronary angiography
  • Three-dimensional


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