Three-dimensional capillary waves due to a submerged source with small surface tension

Christopher J. Lustri*, Ravindra Pethiyagoda, S. Jonathan Chapman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Steady and unsteady linearised flow past a submerged source are studied in the small-surface-tension limit, in the absence of gravitational effects. The free-surface capillary waves generated are exponentially small in the surface tension, and are determined using the theory of exponential asymptotics. In the steady problem, capillary waves are found to extend upstream from the source, switching on across curves on the free surface known as Stokes lines. Asymptotic predictions are compared with computational solutions for the position of the free surface. In the unsteady problem, transient effects cause the solution to display more complicated asymptotic behaviour, such as higher-order Stokes lines. The theory of exponential asymptotics is applied to show how the capillary waves evolve over time, and eventually tend to the steady solution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)670-701
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2019


  • capillary waves

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