Time-correlated single photon counting for simultaneous monitoring of zinc oxide nanoparticles and NAD(P)H in intact and barrier-disrupted volunteer skin

Lynlee L. Lin, Jeffrey E. Grice, Margaret K. Butler, Andrei V. Zvyagin, Wolfgang Becker, Thomas A. Robertson, H. Peter Soyer, Michael S. Roberts, Tarl W. Prow*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: There is a lack of relevant, non-animal alternatives for assessing exposure and toxicity of nanoparticle-containing cosmetics, e.g. sunscreens. Our goal was to evaluate timecorrelated single photon counting (TCSPC) for simultaneous monitoring of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) and the metabolic state of volunteer skin. Methods: We separated the fluorescence lifetime signatures of endogenous fluorophore signals (i.e. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NAD(P)H and keratin) and the ZnO-NP signal using advanced TCSPC to simultaneously determine ZnO-NP penetration profiles and NAD(P)H changes in subjects with altered barrier function, including tape-stripped skin and in psoriasis or atopic dermatitis lesions. Results:We detected no ZnO-NP penetration into viable human skin in any group. ZnO-NP signal was significantly increased (p<1) on the surface of tape-stripped and lesional skin after 4 and 2 h of treatment, respectively. Free NAD(P)H signal significantly increased in tape-stripped viable epidermis treated for 4 h of ZnO-NP compared to vehicle control. No significant NAD(P)H changes were noted in the lesional study. Conclusion: TCSPC techniques enabled simultaneous, real-ime quantification of ZnO-NP concentration and NAD(P)H via non-invasive imaging in the stratum corneum and viable epidermis of volunteers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2920-2930
Number of pages11
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011

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