Topological protection of photonic mid-gap defect modes

Jiho Noh, Wladimir A. Benalcazar, Sheng Huang, Matthew J. Collins, Kevin P. Chen, Taylor L. Hughes, Mikael C. Rechtsman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

212 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Defect modes in two-dimensional periodic photonic structures have found use in diverse optical devices. For example, photonic crystal cavities confine optical modes to subwavelength volumes and can be used for enhancement of nonlinearity, lasing and cavity quantum electrodynamics. Defect-core photonic crystal fibres allow for supercontinuum generation and endlessly single-mode fibres with large cores. However, these modes are notoriously fragile: small structural change leads to significant detuning of resonance frequency and mode volume. Here, we show that photonic topological crystalline insulator structures can be used to topologically protect the mode frequency at mid-gap and minimize the volume of a photonic defect mode. We experimentally demonstrate this in a femtosecond-laser-written waveguide array by observing the presence of a topological zero mode confined to the corner of the array. The robustness of this mode is guaranteed by a topological invariant that protects zero-dimensional states embedded in a two-dimensional environment—a novel form of topological protection that has not been previously demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408–415
Number of pages8
JournalNature Photonics
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes

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