Toward a comprehensive view of the skills involved in word reading in Grades 4, 6, and 8

A. A. Roman, J. R. Kirby, R. K. Parrila, L. Wade-Woolley, S. H. Deacon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

182 Citations (Scopus)


Research to date has proposed four main variables involved in reading development: phonological awareness, naming speed, orthographic knowledge, and morphological awareness. Although each of these variables has been examined in the context of one or two of the other variables, this study examines all four factors together to assess their unique contribution to reading. A sample of children in Grades 4, 6, and 8 (ages 10, 12, and 14 years) completed a battery of tests that included at least one measure of each of the four variables and two measures of reading accuracy. Phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and morphological awareness each contributed uniquely to real word and pseudoword reading beyond the other variables, whereas naming speed did not survive these stringent controls. The results support the sustained importance of these three skills in reading by older readers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-113
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • morphological awareness
  • phonological awareness
  • orthographic knowledge
  • naming speed
  • reading development
  • reading accuracy


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