Towards a more naturalistic CALL: video-gaming and language learning

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Recent social and technological developments are placing independent access to the Internet within the reach of more and more foreign language learners, who are increasingly using this access to pursue interests online through the languages they are learning. Conceptualized in this paper as 'naturalistic CALL', this phenomenon is described as a logical step in the evolution of CALL and, in particular, of its 'communicative' and 'network-based' phases. Following a brief review of early studies in this area, a framework for research is described based on dimensions of location, formality, pedagogy, and locus of control. Potential issues for future research within this framework are also identified with reference to data from a study of multilingual video-gaming practices among young people in Hong Kong.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • CALL
  • CALL research
  • history of CALL
  • Informal language learning
  • Internet
  • Naturalistic language learning
  • Out-of-class language learning


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