Trajectories of self-efficacy and depressed mood and their relationship in the first 12 months following spinal cord injury

Ashley Craig*, Yvonne Tran, Rebecca Guest, James Middleton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To establish self-efficacy and depressive mood trajectories in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), determine their interrelationship over time, and determine the influence that appraisals and comorbid physical conditions have on the development of self-efficacy. Design: A prospective cohort design. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation and community settings. Participants: Adults (N=88) admitted consecutively into 3 SCI units (mean age, 42.6 years, 70.4% male, 61% paraplegia). Interventions: Multidisciplinary inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures: The Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to model self-efficacy and depressive mood trajectories. Appraisals were assessed using the Appraisals of Disability Scale and frequency/type of secondary conditions using the Secondary Conditions Scale. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine trajectories. Dual trajectory probability analysis was used to determine concurrent changes in self-efficacy and depressive mood. Linear mixed modeling incorporating repeated measures determined the contribution of appraisals and physical complications to self-efficacy trajectories. Results: Modeling identified 4 trajectories of self-efficacy and depressive mood. The majority (around 60%) of the sample was estimated to have moderate to high self-efficacy and low levels of depressive mood. Dual trajectory analysis revealed that robust self-efficacy was strongly connected to low depressive mood over time, while low self-efficacy was strongly linked to clinically elevated depressive mood. Low self-efficacy was related to higher severity of secondary conditions and negative appraisals. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of self-efficacy not only as a strategic clinical measure for assessing adjustment following SCI but also in relation to the implications it raises for improving SCI rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-447
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Adjustment
  • Attitude
  • Depression
  • Rehabilitation
  • Spinal cord injuries


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