Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis: A systematic review

Tristan D. Yan*, Christopher Cao, Julie Martens-Nielsen, Ratnasari Padang, Martin Ng, Michael P. Vallely, Paul G. Bannon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: The present systematic review objectively assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients at high surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis. Methods: Electronic searches were performed in 6 databases from January 2000 to March 2009. The end points included feasibility, safety, efficacy, and durability. Clinical effectiveness was synthesized through a narrative review with full tabulation of results of all included studies. Results: The current evidence on transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis is limited to short-term observational studies. The overall procedural success rates ranged from 74% to 100%. The incidence of major adverse events included 30-day mortality (0%-25%), major ventricular tachyarrhythmia (0%-4%), myocardial infarction (0%-15%), cardiac tamponade (2%-10%), stroke (0%-10%), conversion to surgery (0%-8%), moderate to major paravalvular leak (4%-35%), vascular complication (8%-17%), valve-in-valve procedure (2%-12%), and aortic dissection/perforation (0%-4%). The overall 30-day major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events ranged from 3% to 35%. The mean aortic valve area ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 cm2 before and 1.3 to 2.0 cm2 after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The mean pressure gradient ranged from 34 to 58 mm Hg before and 3 to 12 mm Hg after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. There was no significant deterioration in echocardiography measurements during the assessment period. Death rate at 6 months postprocedure ranged from 18% to 48%. No studies had adequate follow-up to reliably evaluate long-term outcomes. Conclusions: The procedure has a potential for serious complications. Although short-term efficacy based on echocardiography measurements is good, there is little evidence on long-term outcomes. The use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation should be considered only within the boundaries of clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1519-1528
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume139
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes

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