Transgenerational disrupting impacts of atrazine in zebrafish: beneficial effects of dietary spirulina

Maryam Hedayatirad, Alireza Mirvaghefi*, Mohammad Ali Nematollahi, Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Culum Brown

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    In a range of fish species, offspring sustainability is much dependent to their mother's investment into the egg yolk. A healthy environment helps broodfish to produce normal quality offspring. However, deviation from optimal conditions can disturb body functions that effect the next generation. Here, zebrafish (Danio rerio) was employed to investigate the transgenerational impacts of an immunotoxic and endocrine disruptor, atrazine (AZ). In addition, the possible ameliorated effects of a nutraceutical, Arthrospira platensis (spirulina- SP), was considered. Adult females were either exposed to 0 (Cn), 5 (AZ5), and 50 (AZ50) μg/L AZ or fed SP-supplemented diet (10 g/kg; SP). In combination treatments, fish were also exposed to AZ and fed SP (SP-AZ5 and SP-AZ50). Embryos were obtained after 28 d of exposure. Exposure to AZ50 caused females to produce eggs with significantly lower fertilization and hatching. No changes were observed in the concentrations of thyroid hormones. AZ significantly increased cortisol response and reduced levels of immunoglobulin, lysozyme and complement activities in females and their offspring. SP-AZ5 and SP-AZ50 females, however, resisted to the toxic effects of AZ, produced embryos with lower cortisol content and higher immunity competence. Bactericidal activity of the embryos also showed the transgenerational antimicrobial effects of SP along with the AZ immunotoxicity. Overall, these results indicate that AZ could have long lasting toxic effects on fish, and that dietary SP-supplementation could ameliorate AZ induced transgenerational toxic effects.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number108685
    Pages (from-to)1-7
    Number of pages7
    JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology
    Issue numberPart C
    Early online date23 Dec 2019
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


    • Danio rerio
    • Herbicide
    • Immunotoxicity
    • Maternal effects
    • Physiological response
    • Spirulina


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