Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from dry surface biofilm (DSB) via different types of gloves

Shamaila Tahir, Durdana Chowdhury, Mark Legge, Honghua Hu, Greg Whiteley, Trevor Glasbey, Anand K. Deva, Karen Vickery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Pathogens can survive for extended periods when incorporated into biofilm on dry hospital surfaces (ie, dry-surface biofilm, DSB). Bacteria within biofilm are protected from desiccation and have increased tolerance to cleaning agents and disinfectants. Objective: We hypothesized that gloved hands of healthcare personnel (HCP) become contaminated with DSB bacteria and hence may transmit bacteria associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).Method Staphylococcus aureus DSB was grown in vitro on coupons in a bioreactor over 12 days with periodic nutrition interspersed with long periods of dehydration. Each coupon had ∼107 DSB bacterial cells. Transmission was tested with nitrile, latex, and surgical gloves by gripping DSB-covered coupons then pressing finger tips onto a sterile horse blood agar surface for up to 19 consecutive touches and counting the number of colony-forming units (CFU) transferred. Coupons were immersed in 5% neutral detergent to simulate cleaning, and the experiment was repeated. Results: Bacterial cells were readily transmitted by all 3 types of gloves commonly used by HCP. Surprisingly, sufficient S. aureus to cause infection were transferred from 1 DSB touch up to 19 consecutive touches. Also, 6 times more bacteria were transferred by nitrile and surgical gloves than to latex gloves (P <.001). Treating the DSB with 5% neutral detergent increased the transmission rate of DSB bacteria 10-fold. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus incorporated into environmental DSB and covered by extracellular polymeric substances readily contaminates gloved hands and can be transferred to another surface. These results confirm the possibility that DSB contributes to HAI acquisition.

LanguageEnglish
Pages60-64
Number of pages5
JournalInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Volume40
Issue number1
Early online date13 Nov 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

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Biofilms
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacteria
Touch
Surgical Gloves
Nitriles
Latex
Cross Infection
Detergents
Hand
Delivery of Health Care
Desiccation
Disinfectants
Bioreactors
Dehydration
Horses
Fingers
Agar
Stem Cells

Cite this

Tahir, Shamaila ; Chowdhury, Durdana ; Legge, Mark ; Hu, Honghua ; Whiteley, Greg ; Glasbey, Trevor ; Deva, Anand K. ; Vickery, Karen. / Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from dry surface biofilm (DSB) via different types of gloves. In: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 2019 ; Vol. 40, No. 1. pp. 60-64.
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abstract = "Background: Pathogens can survive for extended periods when incorporated into biofilm on dry hospital surfaces (ie, dry-surface biofilm, DSB). Bacteria within biofilm are protected from desiccation and have increased tolerance to cleaning agents and disinfectants. Objective: We hypothesized that gloved hands of healthcare personnel (HCP) become contaminated with DSB bacteria and hence may transmit bacteria associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).Method Staphylococcus aureus DSB was grown in vitro on coupons in a bioreactor over 12 days with periodic nutrition interspersed with long periods of dehydration. Each coupon had ∼107 DSB bacterial cells. Transmission was tested with nitrile, latex, and surgical gloves by gripping DSB-covered coupons then pressing finger tips onto a sterile horse blood agar surface for up to 19 consecutive touches and counting the number of colony-forming units (CFU) transferred. Coupons were immersed in 5{\%} neutral detergent to simulate cleaning, and the experiment was repeated. Results: Bacterial cells were readily transmitted by all 3 types of gloves commonly used by HCP. Surprisingly, sufficient S. aureus to cause infection were transferred from 1 DSB touch up to 19 consecutive touches. Also, 6 times more bacteria were transferred by nitrile and surgical gloves than to latex gloves (P <.001). Treating the DSB with 5{\%} neutral detergent increased the transmission rate of DSB bacteria 10-fold. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus incorporated into environmental DSB and covered by extracellular polymeric substances readily contaminates gloved hands and can be transferred to another surface. These results confirm the possibility that DSB contributes to HAI acquisition.",
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Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from dry surface biofilm (DSB) via different types of gloves. / Tahir, Shamaila; Chowdhury, Durdana; Legge, Mark; Hu, Honghua; Whiteley, Greg; Glasbey, Trevor; Deva, Anand K.; Vickery, Karen.

In: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 01.2019, p. 60-64.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Glasbey,Trevor

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N2 - Background: Pathogens can survive for extended periods when incorporated into biofilm on dry hospital surfaces (ie, dry-surface biofilm, DSB). Bacteria within biofilm are protected from desiccation and have increased tolerance to cleaning agents and disinfectants. Objective: We hypothesized that gloved hands of healthcare personnel (HCP) become contaminated with DSB bacteria and hence may transmit bacteria associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).Method Staphylococcus aureus DSB was grown in vitro on coupons in a bioreactor over 12 days with periodic nutrition interspersed with long periods of dehydration. Each coupon had ∼107 DSB bacterial cells. Transmission was tested with nitrile, latex, and surgical gloves by gripping DSB-covered coupons then pressing finger tips onto a sterile horse blood agar surface for up to 19 consecutive touches and counting the number of colony-forming units (CFU) transferred. Coupons were immersed in 5% neutral detergent to simulate cleaning, and the experiment was repeated. Results: Bacterial cells were readily transmitted by all 3 types of gloves commonly used by HCP. Surprisingly, sufficient S. aureus to cause infection were transferred from 1 DSB touch up to 19 consecutive touches. Also, 6 times more bacteria were transferred by nitrile and surgical gloves than to latex gloves (P <.001). Treating the DSB with 5% neutral detergent increased the transmission rate of DSB bacteria 10-fold. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus incorporated into environmental DSB and covered by extracellular polymeric substances readily contaminates gloved hands and can be transferred to another surface. These results confirm the possibility that DSB contributes to HAI acquisition.

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