Three DNA fragments, trs1, 2 and 3, were isolated from the Trichoderma reesei genome on the basis of their ability to promote autonomous replication of plasmids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each trs element bound specifically to the isolated T. reesei nuclear matrix in vitro, and two of them bound in vivo, indicating that they are matrix attachment regions (MARs). A similar sequence previously isolated from Aspergillus nidulans (ans1) was also shown to bind specifically to the T. reesei nuclear matrix in vitro. The T. reesei MARs are AT-rich sequences containing 70%: 86% and 73% A+T over 2.9, 0.8 and 3.7 kb. respectively for trs1, 2 and 3. They exhibited no significant sequence homology, but were shown to contain a number of sequence motifs that occur frequently in many MARs identified in other eukaryotes. However, these motifs occurred as frequently in the trs elements as in randomly generated sequences with the same A+T content. trs1 and 3 were shown to be present as single copies in the T. reesei genome. The presence of the trs elements in transforming plasmids enhanced the frequency of integrative transformation of T. reesei up to five fold over plasmids without a trs. No evidence was obtained to suggest that the trs elements promoted efficient replication of plasmids in T. reseei. A mechanism for the enhancement of transformation frequency by the trs elements is proposed.
- Autonomously replicating sequence
- Matrix attachment region
- Nuclear matrix
- Trichoderma reesei