This article explores the concept of identity in Turkey and how issues associated with it influence Turkish relations with European states, societies, and the European Union (EU). Turkey's internal diversity is often overlooked in favor of more monolithic representations. This diversity has positive and negative dimensions for governance in Turkey and for forces wanting to maintain or regenerate momentum for accession to the EU. In comparison, EUrope is struggling to create a common identity of its own. For some Europeans, Turkey is an external unifier. Although the salience of Turkey-EUrope relations has been relatively muted as the debt crisis overwhelms other political themes, the possibility of Turkey joining the EU stimulates identity-related concerns as much as others about financial transfers.