Two-factor mutual authentication based on smart cards and passwords

Guomin Yang, Duncan S. Wong*, Huaxiong Wang, Xiaotie Deng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

159 Citations (Scopus)


One of the most commonly used two-factor user authentication mechanisms nowadays is based on smart-card and password. A scheme of this type is called a smart-card-based password authentication scheme. The core feature of such a scheme is to enforce two-factor authentication in the sense that the client must have the smart-card and know the password in order to gain access to the server. In this paper, we scrutinize the security requirements of this kind of schemes, and propose a new scheme and a generic construction framework for smart-card-based password authentication. We show that a secure password based key exchange protocol can be efficiently transformed to a smart-card-based password authentication scheme provided that there exist pseudorandom functions and target collision resistant hash functions. Our construction appears to be the first one with provable security. In addition, we show that two recently proposed schemes of this kind are insecure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1160-1172
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Computer and System Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008


  • Dictionary attack
  • Guessing attack
  • Password
  • Smart-card
  • Two-factor authentication

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Two-factor mutual authentication based on smart cards and passwords'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this