Bacterial pathogens of Greenshell™ mussel (GSM) larvae can cause batch losses during hatchery production. Twenty-two isolates were screened using a larval bioassay. Two strains were identified as potential pathogens. Phenotypic identification of these strains revealed two non-reactive Gram-negative, oxidase positive rods. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Vibrio splendidus and a V. coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate as pathogens of GSM larvae, with an ability to cause 83% and 75% larval mortality in vitro, respectively, at a concentration of 102 CFU mL-1. Histopathology indicated that the route of infection was via the digestive system. Using healthy larvae as target hosts, Koch's postulates were confirmed for the two isolates. This is the first report on pathogens of GSM larvae.