Two-way coupled simulation of a flow laden with metallic particulates in overexpanded TIC nozzle

Abouzar Moshfegh, Mehrzad Shams, Reza Ebrahimi, Mohammad Ali Farnia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


A simulation of non-reacting dilute gas–solid flow in a truncated ideal contour nozzle with consideration of external stream interactions is performed. The Eulerian–Lagrangian approach involving a two-way momentum and thermal coupling between gas and particles phases is also adopted. Of interests are to investigate the effects of particles diameter and mass flow fraction on the flow pattern, Mach number, pressure and temperature contours and their distributions along the nozzle centerline and wall. The main goal is to determine the separation point quantitatively when the particles characteristics change. Particles sample trajectories are illustrated throughout the flow field and a qualitative discussion on the way that physical properties of the nozzle exit flow and particles trajectories oscillate is prepared. The existence of solid particulates delays the separation prominently in the cases studied. The bigger particles and the higher particles mass flow fractions respectively advance and delay the separation occurrence. The particles trajectories oscillate when they expose to the crisscrossing (or diamond-shape) shock waves generated outside the nozzle to approach the exit jet conditions to the ambient. The simulation code is validated and verified, respectively, against a one-phase 2D convergent–divergent nozzle flow and a two-phase Jet Propulsion Laboratory nozzle flow, and acceptable agreements are achieved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1142-1156
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Gas–solid flow
  • TIC nozzle
  • CFD
  • Two-way coupling
  • Separation point transition


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