Ultrafast-laser-inscribed 3D integrated photonics: Challenges and emerging applications

S. Gross*, M. J. Withford

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Citations (Scopus)
131 Downloads (Pure)


Since the discovery that tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses can induce a highly localised and permanent refractive index modification in a large number of transparent dielectrics, the technique of ultrafast laser inscription has received great attention from a wide range of applications. In particular, the capability to create three-dimensional optical waveguide circuits has opened up new opportunities for integrated photonics that would not have been possible with traditional planar fabrication techniques because it enables full access to the many degrees of freedom in a photon. This paper reviews the basic techniques and technological challenges of 3D integrated photonics fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription as well as reviews the most recent progress in the fields of astrophotonics, optical communication, quantum photonics, emulation of quantum systems, optofluidics and sensing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-352
Number of pages21
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2015. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


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