Uncovering the structure of and gender and developmental differences in cyber bullying

Lucy Griezel*, Linda R. Finger, Gawaian H. Bodkin-Andrews, Rhonda G. Craven, Alexander Seeshing Yeung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Although literature on traditional bullying is abundant, a limited body of sound empirical research exists regarding its newest form: cyber bullying. The sample comprised Australian secondary students (N = 803) and aimed to identify the underlying structure of cyber bullying, and differences in traditional and cyber bullying behaviors across gender and grade. Reliability analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and factorial invariance testing demonstrated that the newly extended measure of traditional and cyber bullying was psychometrically sound. Multiple-Indicators-Multiple-Causes models demonstrated gender, grade, and gender by grade interaction effects for traditional and cyber forms of bullying and being bullied. Findings were interpreted in the context of bullying theory. Moreover, potential limitations of the investigation and implications for theory, research, and practice were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-455
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Educational Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2012


  • cyber bullying
  • gender differences
  • grade differences
  • measurement


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